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Irma Cleven obtained her masters’s degree in social psychology at Radboud University Nijmegen in 2012 and a master’s degree in International Relations and Diplomacy at Antwerp University in 2014. After graduation she worked as a junior researcher and tutor in victimology at Tilburg University (INTERVICT) and in criminology at Erasmus University Rotterdam, where she is currently working as a PhD candidate.
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Irma Cleven’s PhD topic is on penal protection orders that aim to protect victims against criminal acts of another person and reduce the consequences of previous criminal acts. In her research she explores how victims experience the process of issuance, compliance and enforcement of these orders can contribute to victims’ sense of safety, i.e. empowerment. Empowerment is understood as the victims’ belief that, with the help of informal or formal support, progress is being made to attain personally meaningful safety-related goals, including but not limited to restoring a sense of safety. This includes a focus on the role of prior expectations, trust in the criminal justice system and the willingness to cooperate with the criminal justice system. This study will provide insights into the possibilities and limits of protection orders to contribute to a victim’s sense of safety, which may help to improve future legal practice.

  1. Fischer, T., Cleven, I., & Struijk, S. (2019). Handhaving en veiligheid bij strafrechtelijke contact-, locatie- en gebiedsverboden ter bescherming van slachtoffers. Rotterdam: Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam - School of Law.

  2. Cleven, I., Lens, K.M.E. & Pemberton, A. (2015). De rol van herstelbemiddeling in het strafrecht. Eindrapportage onderzoek pilots Herstelbemiddeling. Intervict. Read it here.

  3. Lens, K.M.E., Cleven, I. & Pemberton, A. (2015). Tussenrapportage pilots mediation in het strafrecht. Intervict.